Neonatal Infection Surveillance Network

Neonatal Infection

Aim of the study:

The purpose of neonIN is to collect high-quality data on the pathogens causing neonatal infections and their antimicrobial susceptibilities and to match this with individual clinical data.

These data can be used to:

  • Describe the epidemiology of neonatal infections and their antibiotic resistance patterns and its change over time;
  • Monitor the impact of changes in practice;
  • Audit predefined infection-related outcomes;
  • Provide the rationale for / a platform for interventional studies;
  • Allow benchmarking between units and countries.

About the database:

neonIN is a Neonatal Infection Surveillance Network, active since 2004. Its main functions are collecting and storing data about the organisms (bacterial and fungal) causing neonatal infections and their antibiotic/antifungal resistance patterns. It matches anonymised demographic and clinical data to the microbiology information. These data allow the monitoring of infections and clinical practice over time. NeonIN is a platform for national audits and interventional studies. The data collected are available to all the network participants and can be used by the participating units to monitor their own practice, compare themselves with other units and it can be analysed at a national level to inform policy and practice.

neonIN began in 2004 with 4 London neonatal units. Currently, many neonatal units contribute data from the UK, Estonia, Greece and Australia. The numbers of sites and participants continue to increase!

Want to know more or get involved as a research centre?

Contact the study team on

Access the database:

Relevant Publications:

Epidemiology of infections and antimicrobial use in Greek Neonatal Units.
Gkentzi D, Kortsalioudaki C, Cailes BC, Zaoutis T, Kopsidas J, Tsolia M, Spyridis N, Siahanidou S, Sarafidis K, Heath PT, Dimitriou G; Neonatal Infection Surveillance Network in Greece. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2019 May;104(3):F293-F297. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2018-315024. Epub 2018 Jun 28.PMID: 29954881

Epidemiology and healthcare factors associated with neonatal enterococcal infections.
Wang J, Kortsalioudaki C, Heath PT, Buttery J, Clarke P, Gkentzi D, Anthony M, Tan K; neonIN network. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2019 Sep;104(5):F480-F485. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2018-315387. Epub 2018 Nov 13.PMID: 30425112

Antimicrobial resistance in UK neonatal units: neonIN infection surveillance network.
Cailes B, Kortsalioudaki C, Buttery J, Pattnayak S, Greenough A, Matthes J, Bedford Russell A, Kennea N, Heath PT; neonIN network. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2018 Sep;103(5):F474-F478. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2017-313238. Epub 2017 Oct 26.PMID: 29074716

Epidemiology of UK neonatal infections: the neonIN infection surveillance network.
Cailes B, Kortsalioudaki C, Buttery J, Pattnayak S, Greenough A, Matthes J, Bedford Russell A, Kennea N, Heath PT; neonIN network. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2018 Nov;103(6):F547-F553. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2017-313203. Epub 2017 Dec 5.PMID: 29208666

Neonatal listeriosis in the UK 2004-2014.
Sapuan S, Kortsalioudaki C, Anthony M, Chang J, Embleton ND, Geethanath RM, Gray J, Greenough A, Lal MK, Luck S, Pattnayak S, Reynolds P, Russell AB, Scorrer T, Turner M, Heath PT, Vergnano S. J Infect. 2017 Mar;74(3):236-242. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2016.11.007. Epub 2016 Nov 17.PMID: 27867063

Neonatal gram-negative infections, antibiotic susceptibility and clinical outcome: an observational study.
Kent A, Kortsalioudaki C, Monahan IM, Bielicki J, Planche TD, Heath PT, Sharland M; Neonatal Gram Negative MIC group.Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2016 Nov;101(6):F507-F512. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2015-309554. Epub 2016 Mar 7.PMID: 26951742

The current and future roles of neonatal infection surveillance programmes in combating antimicrobial resistance.
Cailes B, Vergnano S, Kortsalioudaki C, Heath P, Sharland M. Early Hum Dev. 2015 Nov;91(11):613-8. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.08.012. Epub 2015 Sep 18.PMID: 26386612

Characterizing the burden of invasive Pseudomonas infection on neonatal units in the UK between 2005 and 2011.
Kadambari S, Botgros A, Clarke P, Vergnano S, Anthony M, Chang J, Collinson A, Embleton N, Kennea N, Settle P, Heath PT, Menson EN; NeonIN Neonatal Infection Surveillance Network. J Hosp Infect. 2014 Oct;88(2):109-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2014.07.006. Epub 2014 Jul 30.PMID: 25146224

Neonatal invasive fungal infection in England 2004-2010.
Oeser C, Vergnano S, Naidoo R, Anthony M, Chang J, Chow P, Clarke P, Embleton N, Kennea N, Pattnayak S, Reichert B, Scorrer T, Tiron I, Watts T, Sharland M, Heath PT; Neonatal Infection Surveillance Network (neonIN). Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 Sep;20(9):936-41. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12578. Epub 2014 Mar 6.PMID: 24479862

Characteristics of Invasive Staphylococcus aureus in United Kingdom Neonatal Units.
Vergnano S, Menson E, Smith Z, Kennea N, Embleton N, Clarke P, Watts T, Heath PT. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011 Oct;30(10):850-4. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318224546d.PMID: 21654546

Risk factors for late onset gram-negative infections: a case-control study.
Samanta S, Farrer K, Breathnach A, Heath PT. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2011 Jan;96(1):F15-8. doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.169540. Epub 2010 Jun 10.PMID: 20538712

Neonatal infections in England: the NeonIN surveillance network.
Vergnano S, Menson E, Kennea N, Embleton N, Russell AB, Watts T, Robinson MJ, Collinson A, Heath PT. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2011 Jan;96(1):F9-F14. doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.178798. Epub 2010 Sep 27.PMID: 20876594

Missed opportunities for preventing group B streptococcus infection.
Vergnano S, Embleton N, Collinson A, Menson E, Russell AB, Heath P. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2010 Jan;95(1):F72-3. doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.160333. Epub 2009 May 12.PMID: 19439431